Humanism emerged as a reaction against those dehumanizing psychological perspectives that attempted to reduce behavior to a set of simple elements. Knowledge of the individual parts may not give you an understanding of how the whole thing operates or of its function.
Strong supporters of reductionism believe that behavior and mental processes should be explained within the framework of basic sciences e.
Behaviorism, biological, cognitive reflects a reductionist position. On the other hand, Freud used idiographic techniques e. Behaviorists such as Skinner explain all behavior as being a result of past learning.
This is a solely Holism and reductionism essay psychology explanation and once again fails to take into account any subsequent environmental or cultural factors.
Abnormal psychology — mental disorders are often explained by an interaction of biological, psychological and environmental factors.
This argument is governed under the concept of Holism. Psychoanalysis — Freud adopted an interactionist approach, in that he considered that behavior was the results of dynamic interaction between id, ego and superego. The findings of such experimental research will inevitably have low generalizibility and cannot be applied to other settings.
However, certain hormones are released when a person feels elated, excited or scared such as adrenaline and certain endorphins. For example giving anti-depressants to someone who is depressed may seem like an optimal solution, but this may overlook the real problem; such as family problems.
For instance, we can see how the brain responds to particular musical sounds by viewing it in a scanner, but how you feel when you hear certain pieces of music is not something a scanner can ever reveal.
Likewise, whilst we need to understand the biology of mental disorders, we may not fully understand the disorder without taking account of social factors which influence it.
By reducing it to its component parts the complicated matter of evolution can never fully be explained, thus leading to a simple but incomplete explanation.
It has been suggested that the usefulness of reductionist approaches depends on the purpose to which they are put. Individual factors are hard to explain under reductionism, because reductionist explanations generalise behaviour; despite being in its simplest terms.
Another example of biological reductionism is aggression — e. It differs from reductionism since an interactionism approach would not try to understand behavior from explanations at one level, but as an interaction between different levels.
In this case, being reductionist is not a valid way of measuring feelings. At the highest sociocultural level, explanations focus on the influence on behavior of where and how we live. Also, language can be reduced to structures in the brain, e. Interactionism is an alternative approach to reductionism, focusing on how different levels of analysis interact with one another.
The lowest level of reductionism offers physiological explanation: Social Psychology looks at the behavior of individuals in a social context. Humanistic psychologists believe that it does not make sense to study reductionist accounts of human behaviour. Their starting point is the self our sense of personal identity which they consider as a functioning whole.
This is a reductionist view because complex behavior is being reduced to a simple stimulus and response relationship.Home > A Level and IB > Psychology > Holism and Reductionism Issues and Debates Essay Plan.
Holism and Reductionism Issues and Debates Essay Plan. Gestalt psychology.
Reductionism vs Holism - Strengths and Limitations of Reductionism. / 5.
Issues and Debates. Read this essay on Holism vs Reductionism. Come browse our large digital warehouse of free sample essays. Get the knowledge you need in order to pass your classes and more. Only at mi-centre.com". The reductionism / holism debate is a controversy that raises questions about the very nature of “explanation” itself.
At first sight such questions can seem difficult and abstract but in essence the two positions in this debate can be summed up in single mi-centre.com: Saul Mcleod. Reductionism The objective of this research paper is to examine and understand the concepts of holism and reductionism and how they both relate to System Dynamics (SD).
This is a part of System Thinking System Thinking (ST) that results a lack of commercial take up. Covers definitions, essay writing skills and examples. Makes clear distinctions between the different types of reductionism and holism. Particularly useful in showing how to structure an essay, according to how many marks are allocated to each section.
Reductionism vs holism: Reductionism And Holism Essay ABSTRACT This The experimental and laboratory approach in various areas of psychology (e.g. behaviourism, biological, cognitive) reflects a reductionist position.Download