Both superpowers rushed to establish spheres of influence in Europe. The Red Army established puppet governments in Bulgaria, Hungary, and Romania, adding to the ranks of independently established pro-Soviet governments in Albania and Yugoslavia.
In MarchTruman asked a joint session of Congress to authorize military assistance to Turkey and Greece, depicting the issue as one of liberty versus oppression, and proclaimed that the U.
The battle for nuclear dominance was characteristic of the Cold War, in which few battles were ever waged face to face. While there was little actual violence, both sides considered the conflict to be severe and threatening.
Atomic Arms Race Nuclear weapons played a central role in the possibility of military engagement between the U. The economies and governments of Western Europe were nearing collapse. InTruman proposed a plan to the United Nations to require the USSR to cease construction on any atomic weaponry, saying that only then would the U.
The Soviets rejected this plan and both sides rushed to develop weapons of mass destruction. But the American advantage was short-lived.
The Berlin Blockade France, Britain, and the United States gradually united their three zones of occupation within Germany and in announced their intention to create a West German Republic.
In the late s, the U. Marshall hoped the plan would eliminate economic and political instability, and strengthen European states against possible communist influence. Berlin, deep in the Soviet zone, was also divided among the four countries.
Truman and his secretary of state George C. Crucial among these was the Potsdam Conference inat which the Allies divided Germany into four zones, controlled by France, Britain, the U.
Eisenhower, who succeeded Truman as president ininherited the conflict. Inthe federal government established the Atomic Energy Commission to oversee the development of nuclear energy and arms.
The former wartime allies soon became bitter enemies. In opposition to the proposed republic—which would have included West Berlin, situated deep in the Soviet zone—Stalin established the Berlin Blockade in Junecutting off all rail and highway access to Berlin from the west.
The drive for the hydrogen bomb succeeded in the November detonation of an H-bomb in the Marshall Islands.
In Julythe Russians detonated their own H-bomb.America Begins to Rearm. The Cold War, the struggle to contain Soviet communism, was not a war, but it was also not a peace.
InCongress passed the National Security Act, creating the Department of Defense. The department was headed by a new cabinet officer, the secretary of defense.
Chapter 17 The Cold War Begins () Postwar America Fear: Americas were terrified the U. S. would fall into another depression and economic hard times would return Problem: Finding jobs and housing for returning soldiers became a large issue GI Bill of Rights/ Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of Stated that returning soldiers can now.
Chapter The Cold War Begins, the Cold War were armed to the teeth with nuclear bombs and, by the late s, missiles World War II, the world had again divided into hostile camps. IV. COLD WAR LIBERALISM Truman’s aggressive gutsy personality suited the confrontational mood of the Cold War.
After Germany’s defeat in World War II, the leaders of the Allied countries met at a series of conferences to reshape the postwar world. Crucial among these was the Potsdam Conference inat which the Allies divided Germany into four zones, controlled by France, Britain, the U.S., and the USSR.
The Cold War, the struggle to contain Soviet communism, was not war, nor was it peace The Soviet menace spurred the unification of the armed serves as well as the creation of a huge new national security apparatus (National.
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